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ASP.NET Core environment aware strongly typed configuration in MongoDB

This is targetted to save in MongoDB but the technique can be used in any targetted backend with key value setting based on IConfigurationProvider Data property.

Basically, the provided interface works based Data property having a type as IDictionary<string, string>. So, whatever class we create it has to be serialized based on same. We would simplify this by creating an abstract class to have certain serialization logic.

This is sample setting for the application. If you check the structure,  Setting is the main class and nested items are Azure, Message, Email, Twilio. The key value needs to be composed based on parent and child classes separated by colons.



Just like above, we need to populate settings from our different setting classes.

Implementation can be grouped in these sections.
- Application level configuration classes.
- Registration of configuration on ASP.NET Core.
- Environment level configuration, this would little mixed with above.

Application level configuration classes

Abstract class implementation for serialization and tracking name

 /// <summary>  
 /// To configuration data as per AspNet Core Configuration.  
 /// </summary>  
 public abstract class DataConfigurationObject  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="DataConfigurationObject"/> class.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="settingName">Name of the setting.</param>  
   public DataConfigurationObject(string settingName)  
   {  
     SettingName = settingName;  
   }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets or sets the name of the parent setting name.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The name of the parent setting name.  
   /// </value>  
   protected string SettingName { get; set; }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Serializes the implementation for data.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="data">The application data.</param>  
   protected abstract void Serialize(IDictionary<string, string> data);  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Serialize data based on configuration.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <returns>The configuration data.</returns>  
   public IDictionary<string, string> ToConfigData()  
   {  
     var value = new Dictionary<string, string>();  
     Serialize(value);  
     return value;  
   }  
 }  

There are three key things to mark from above class:

SettingName  for root level setting name like Azure, Email etc from above-given example.

Serialize for seralization logic implementation on each configuration class.

ToConfigData for returning serialize data to consume on configuration classes.

Whatever configuration class we create it would be using same, for help in serialization.

There is one more item that each configuration class would be inheriting is to create default values for each configuration class. This could be implemented through an Interface to easy access.

Interface for the creation of default values for configuration.

This would help to create default values for any class/configuration.

   /// <summary>  
   /// The default value generation for the class.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <typeparam name="T"></typeparam>  
   public interface IDefault<T>  
     where T : class  
   {  
     /// <summary>  
     /// Creates the default for the class.  
     /// </summary>  
     /// <returns>Default value for the model.</returns>  
     T CreateDefault();  
   }  



Implementation of root-level application configuration


 /// <summary>  
 /// Application settings.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <seealso cref="DataConfigurationObject" />  
 public class Setting  
      : DataConfigurationObject, IDefault<Setting>  
 {  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="Setting"/> class.  
      /// </summary>  
      public Setting()  
           : base(nameof(Setting))  
      {  
           Azure = new AzureSetting();  
           Message = new MessageSetting();  
      }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Gets or sets the name of the application.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <value>  
      /// The name of the application.  
      /// </value>  
      public string AppName { get; set; }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Gets or sets the Azure level application settings.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <value>  
      /// The azure level application setting.  
      /// </value>  
      public AzureSetting Azure { get; set; }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Gets or sets the message.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <value>  
      /// The message.  
      /// </value>  
      public MessageSetting Message { get; set; }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Creates the default for the class.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <returns>  
      /// Default value for the model.  
      /// </returns>  
      public Setting CreateDefault()  
      {  
           return new Setting  
           {  
                AppName = "My Project - App",  
                Azure = Azure.CreateDefault(),  
                Message = Message.CreateDefault()  
           };  
      }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Serializes the implementation for data.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <param name="data">The application data.</param>  
      protected override void Serialize(IDictionary<string, string> data)  
      {  
           data.Add("Setting:AppName", AppName);  
           Azure.ToConfigData().ToList().ForEach(data.Add);  
           Message.ToConfigData().ToList().ForEach(data.Add);  
      }  
 }  

The key elements to mark from above.

- Constructor and base class constructor initialization did by providing the setting name on constructor by passing nameof(Setting) which means "Setting:" as a string. The Setting: string which is used to identify class from ASP.NET Core. It is used to set root level name for the configuration.
AzureSettingMessageSetting are nested classes which would have a similar implementation as this class.
AppName is a property that would initialize in Serialize.
CreateDefault is a function to set up default values for configuration.
Serialize method uses two things. First to serialize property as data.Add("Setting:AppName", AppName). The second thing is to add configuration from other child classes.ToList is just used to simplify by consuming of ForEach function to append configurations.

Child class configuration implementation.

 /// <summary>  
 /// Azure settings for the application.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <seealso cref="DataConfigurationObject" />  
 /// <seealso cref="IDefault{AzureSetting}" />  
 public class AzureSetting  
      : DataConfigurationObject, IDefault<AzureSetting>  
 {  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="AzureSetting"/> class.  
      /// </summary>  
      public AzureSetting()  
           : base($"{nameof(Setting)}:{nameof(Setting.Azure)}")  
      {  
           AzureStorageAccount = new AzureStorageSetting();  
           AzureAd = new AzureDirectorySetting();  
      }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Gets or sets the azure ad.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <value>  
      /// The azure ad.  
      /// </value>  
      public AzureDirectorySetting AzureAd { get; set; }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Gets or sets the azure storage account.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <value>  
      /// The azure storage account.  
      /// </value>  
      public AzureStorageSetting AzureStorageAccount { get; set; }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Creates the default for the class.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <returns>  
      /// Default value for the model.  
      /// </returns>  
      public AzureSetting CreateDefault()  
      {  
           return new AzureSetting  
           {  
                AzureAd = AzureAd.CreateDefault(),  
                AzureStorageAccount = AzureStorageAccount.CreateDefault()  
           };  
      }  
      /// <summary>  
      /// Serializes the implementation for data.  
      /// </summary>  
      /// <param name="data">The application data.</param>  
      protected override void Serialize(IDictionary<string, string> data)  
      {  
           AzureAd.ToConfigData().ToList().ForEach(data.Add);  
           AzureStorageAccount.ToConfigData().ToList().ForEach(data.Add);  
      }  
 }  

The only different over here is the initialization of base class through the constructor. Here full path is specified base($"{nameof(Setting)}:{nameof(Setting.Azure)}"). This is going to be the last example of nested configuration.


 /// <summary>  
 /// Azure storage account settings.  
 /// </summary>  
 public class AzureStorageSetting  
   : DataConfigurationObject, IDefault<AzureStorageSetting>  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="AzureStorageSetting"/> class.  
   /// </summary>  
   public AzureStorageSetting()  
     : base($"{nameof(Setting)}:{nameof(Setting.Azure)}:{nameof(AzureSetting.AzureStorageAccount)}")  
   {  
   }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets or sets the access key.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The access key.  
   /// </value>  
   public string AccessKey { get; set; }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets or sets the name of the storage account.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The name of the storage account.  
   /// </value>  
   public string StorageAccountName { get; set; }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Creates the default for the class.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <returns>  
   /// Default value for the model.  
   /// </returns>  
   public AzureStorageSetting CreateDefault()  
   {  
     return new AzureStorageSetting  
     {  
       AccessKey = "<AccessKeySetting>",  
       StorageAccountName = "<StorageAccountNameSetting>"  
     };  
   }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Serializes the implementation for data.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="data">The application data.</param>  
   protected override void Serialize(IDictionary<string, string> data)  
   {  
     Func<string, string> nameValue = name => $"{SettingName}:{name}";  
     data[nameValue(nameof(StorageAccountName))] = StorageAccountName;  
     data[nameValue(nameof(AccessKey))] = AccessKey;  
   }  
 }  

Now you see the pattern, how it is being initialized on the constructor, default value, and property values.

In last part, we would be setting all configuration based on environments like Development, Staging, Production and so on...

Master root level setting to save based on different environments

 /// <summary>  
 /// Application settings for the application.  
 /// </summary>  
 public class AppSetting  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets or sets the Environment identifier.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The Environment identifier.  
   /// </value>  
   [BsonId]  
   public string Id { get; set; }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets or sets the value for application level settings.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The application level settings.  
   /// </value>  
   public Setting Value { get; set; }  
 }  

The Id would save environment name Value would have application level settings.

Registration of configuration on ASP.NET Core

This would be divided into three parts ConfigurationProviderIConfigurationSource and registration with IOption.

Let's start with the main item which would set up all the configuration classes we created.

Implementation of configuration provider

 using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;  
 using MongoDB.Driver;  
 /// <summary>  
 /// Configuration provider for NoSql  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <typeparam name="TSetting">The type of the setting.</typeparam>  
 /// <seealso cref="Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.ConfigurationProvider" />  
 public class ConfigurationProviderNoSql<TSetting>  
   : ConfigurationProvider  
   where TSetting : DataConfigurationObject  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The environment type  
   /// </summary>  
   private readonly EnvironmentType EnvironmentType;  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The mongo database  
   /// </summary>  
   private readonly IMongoDatabase MongoDb;  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="ConfigurationProviderNoSql{TSetting}"/> class.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="mongoDatabase">The mongo database.</param>  
   /// <param name="environmentType">Type of the environment.</param>  
   public ConfigurationProviderNoSql(IMongoDatabase mongoDatabase, EnvironmentType environmentType)  
   {  
     MongoDb = mongoDatabase;  
     EnvironmentType = environmentType;  
   }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets or sets the application setting.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The application setting.  
   /// </value>  
   public Setting Setting { get; set; }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Gets the application setting collection.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <value>  
   /// The application setting collection.  
   /// </value>  
   protected IMongoCollection<AppSetting> AppSettingCollection =>  
     MongoDb.GetCollection<AppSetting>("SystemApplicationSetting");  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Loads this instance.  
   /// </summary>  
   public override void Load()  
   {  
     var value = AppSettingCollection.Find(item => item.Id == EnvironmentType.ToString()).FirstOrDefault();  
     if (value == null)  
     {  
       value = new AppSetting  
       {  
         Id = EnvironmentType.ToString(),  
         Value = new Setting().CreateDefault()  
       };  
       AppSettingCollection.InsertOne(value);  
     }  
     Setting = value.Value;  
     Data = value.Value.ToConfigData();  
   }  
 }  

The codes over here are pretty understandable and straight to just consume whatever we created through those previous configuration classes. It is using Load function and Data property from ConfigurationProvider class.

NOTE: I have used generic class but not fully implemented.

The EnvironmentType enum is just based on the environment we want to have. This is an example.

 /// <summary>  
 /// Environment type.  
 /// </summary>  
 public enum EnvironmentType  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The Development environment.  
   /// </summary>  
   Development,  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The Staging environment.  
   /// </summary>  
   Staging,  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The Production environment.  
   /// </summary>  
   Production,   
 }  

The IConfigurationSource implementation

 using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
 using MongoDB.Driver; 
 /// <summary>  
 /// Configuration based on MongoDB.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <typeparam name="TSetting">The type of the setting.</typeparam>  
 /// <seealso cref="Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.IConfigurationSource" />  
 public class NoSqlConfigurationSource<TSetting>  
   : IConfigurationSource  
   where TSetting : DataConfigurationObject  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The mongo database  
   /// </summary>  
   private readonly IMongoDatabase MongoDb;  
   /// <summary>  
   /// The environment type  
   /// </summary>  
   private readonly EnvironmentType EnvironmentType;  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="NoSqlConfigurationSource{TSetting}"/> class.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="mongoDatabase">The mongo database.</param>  
   /// <param name="environmentType">Type of the environment.</param>  
   public NoSqlConfigurationSource(IMongoDatabase mongoDatabase, EnvironmentType environmentType)  
   {  
     MongoDb = mongoDatabase;  
     EnvironmentType = environmentType;  
   }  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Builds the <see cref="T:Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.IConfigurationProvider" /> for this source.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="builder">The <see cref="T:Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.IConfigurationBuilder" />.</param>  
   /// <returns>  
   /// An <see cref="T:Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.IConfigurationProvider" />  
   /// </returns>  
   public IConfigurationProvider Build(IConfigurationBuilder builder)  
   {  
     return new ConfigurationProviderNoSql<TSetting>(MongoDb, EnvironmentType);  
   }  
 }  
 /// <summary>  
 /// Configuration based on MongoDB.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <seealso cref="Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.IConfigurationSource" />  
 public class NoSqlConfigurationSource  
 : NoSqlConfigurationSource<AppSetting>  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="NoSqlConfigurationSource"/> class.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="mongoDatabase">The mongo database.</param>  
   /// <param name="environmentType">Type of the environment.</param>  
   public NoSqlConfigurationSource(IMongoDatabase mongoDatabase, EnvironmentType environmentType)  
     : base(mongoDatabase, environmentType)  
   {  
   }  
 }  

It just initializes what we already created.

The extension method and usage for wiring up configuration.

 using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;  
 using MongoDB.Driver;  
 using System;  
 /// <summary>  
 /// MongoDB configuration helper.  
 /// </summary>  
 public static class MongoDbConfigExtension  
 {  
   /// <summary>  
   /// Adds the mongo database configuration.  
   /// </summary>  
   /// <param name="builder">The builder.</param>  
   /// <param name="environmentType">Type of the environment.</param>  
   /// <param name="option">The action for creation of Mongo database.</param>  
   /// <returns>Configuration builder after NoSql configuration.</returns>  
   public static IConfigurationBuilder AddMongoDbConfig(  
     this IConfigurationBuilder builder, EnvironmentType environmentType, Func<IMongoDatabase> option)  
   {  
     return builder.Add(new NoSqlConfigurationSource(option(), environmentType));  
   }  
 }  


Startup.cs settings.

 /// <summary>  
 /// Gets or sets the configuration.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <value>The configuration.</value>  
 public IConfigurationRoot Configuration { get; set; }  
 /// <summary>  
 /// Gets or sets the application setting.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <value>  
 /// The application setting.  
 /// </value>  
 public Setting Setting { get; set; }            
 /// <summary>  
 /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="Startup"/> class.  
 /// </summary>  
 /// <param name="env">The environment type.</param>  
 public Startup(IHostingEnvironment env)  
 {  
   var envType = (EnvironmentType)Enum.Parse(typeof(EnvironmentType), env.EnvironmentName);  
   // work with with a builder using multiple calls  
   var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()  
     .SetBasePath(env.ContentRootPath)  
     .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true);  
   var connectionStringConfig = builder.Build();  
   // chain calls together as a fluent API  
   var config = new ConfigurationBuilder().SetBasePath(env.ContentRootPath).AddMongoDbConfig(envType,  
       () => new MongoClient(connectionStringConfig  
         .GetConnectionString($"MongoDatabase{env.EnvironmentName}"))  
         .GetDatabase($"MyProject{env.EnvironmentName}"))  
     .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)  
     .AddJsonFile($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)  
     .AddEnvironmentVariables();  
   Configuration = config.Build();  
   Environment = env;  
   Setting = Configuration.Get<Setting>(nameof(Setting));  
 }  
 public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)  
 {  
      // Configuration DI  
      services.AddSingleton<IConfigurationRoot>(Configuration);  
      services.AddSingleton<IConfiguration>(Configuration);  
      services.AddOptionModels(Configuration, (config) =>  
      {  
           config = Configuration.Get<Setting>(nameof(Setting));  
      });  
      services.AddSingleton((option) =>  
      {  
           return Configuration.Get<Setting>(nameof(Setting));  
      });       
 }  

The builder is to get the connection string from appSettings.json file and use that connection string to initialize configuration through AddMongoDbConfig extension method.

Now, the Setting DI should work on any constructor injection.

NOTE: Few DI were done for a testing purpose. You can use as per need.

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